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McCart JA, Finch DK, Jarman J, Hickling E, Lind JD, Richardson MR, Berndt DJ, Luther SL. Using ensemble models to classify the sentiment expressed in suicide notes. Biomedical informatics insights. 2012 Jan 30; 5(Suppl. 1):77-85.
In 2007, suicide was the tenth leading cause of death in the U.S. Given the significance of this problem, suicide was the focus of the 2011 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) Natural Language Processing (NLP) shared task competition (track two). Specifically, the challenge concentrated on sentiment analysis, predicting the presence or absence of 15 emotions (labels) simultaneously in a collection of suicide notes spanning over 70 years. Our team explored multiple approaches combining regular expression-based rules, statistical text mining (STM), and an approach that applies weights to text while accounting for multiple labels. Our best submission used an ensemble of both rules and STM models to achieve a micro-averaged F(1) score of 0.5023, slightly above the mean from the 26 teams that competed (0.4875).