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Norman RS, Jaramillo CA, Amuan M, Wells MA, Eapen BC, Pugh MJ. Traumatic brain injury in veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan: communication disorders stratified by severity of brain injury. Brain injury. 2013 Oct 16; 27(13-14):1623-30.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of communication disorders in veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Retrospective study of the prevalence of aphasia, fluency and voice disorders among veterans with different severity levels of TBI. Data was obtained from the VA National repository for OEF/OIF/OND veterans who received VA care in Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011. RESULTS: Among the 303,716 veterans in this study, 1848 were diagnosed with a communication disorder; 40% of these were also diagnosed with a TBI. Voice disorders were the most prevalent diagnosis (3.5 per 1000) followed by aphasia (1.9 per 1000) and fluency disorder (0.7 per 1000). Individuals with a TBI diagnosis were more likely to have a diagnosis of aphasia, followed by fluency and then voice disorder. The odds ratio (OR) of aphasia with TBI was 11.09-252.75 (95% CI = 8.78-441.52, p < 0.01). OR for fluency disorders with TBI was 3.58-10.41 (95% CI = 2.56-42.40, p < 0.01) and association of voice disorders with TBI was significant for all levels of TBI severity (OR = 1.5-6.61, 95% CI = 1.24-14.05, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Veterans who sustained a TBI were more likely to have a diagnosis of a communication disorder, regardless of TBI severity. Those with TBI, including mild TBI, should be screened and evaluated for communication disorders.