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Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection among veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder.
Ramanathan S, Johnson S, Burns SP, Kralovic SM, Goldstein B, Smith B, Gerding DN, Evans CT. Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection among veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder. American journal of infection control. 2014 Feb 1; 42(2):168-73.
Recurrent Clostridium difficile (CDI) infection is a growing concern; however, there are little data on impact of recurrent CDI on those with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D). Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of CDI among Veterans with SCI/D.
This was a retrospective cohort study with data from outpatient, inpatient, and extended care settings at 83 Department of Veterans Affairs facilities from 2002 to 2009.
Of 1,464 cases of CDI analyzed, 315 cases (21.5%) had a first recurrence of CDI. Multivariable regression demonstrated that risk factors significantly associated with increased recurrence were concomitant fluoroquinolone use (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.80), whereas concomitant tetracycline use (OR, 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14-0.90), and cerebrovascular accident (OR, 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.85) were associated with decreased recurrence. A subanalysis in those with health care facility-onset CDI showed that increased length of stay postinitial CDI was a significant risk factor for recurrence as was concomitant use of fluoroquinolones and that tetracycline remained protective for recurrence.
Concomitant fluoroquinolone use was a risk factor for the recurrence of CDI. In contrast, tetracyclines and cerebrovascular accident were protective. Length of stay greater than 90 days from the initial CDI episode was also a risk factor for recurrence among those with health care facility-onset CDI. Future studies should focus on effective strategies to prevent these risk factors among the SCI/D population.