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Neuropsychiatric disorders and potentially preventable hospitalizations in a prospective cohort study of older Americans.
Davydow DS, Zivin K, Katon WJ, Pontone GM, Chwastiak L, Langa KM, Iwashyna TJ. Neuropsychiatric disorders and potentially preventable hospitalizations in a prospective cohort study of older Americans. Journal of general internal medicine. 2014 Oct 1; 29(10):1362-71.
The relative contributions of depression, cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND), and dementia to the risk of potentially preventable hospitalizations in older adults are not well understood.
To determine if depression, CIND, and/or dementia are each independently associated with hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and rehospitalizations within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, congestive heart failure (CHF), or myocardial infarction (MI).
Prospective cohort study.
Population-based sample of 7,031 Americans? > 50 years old participating in the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2008).
The eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and/or International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) depression diagnoses were used to identify baseline depression. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status and/or ICD-9-CM dementia diagnoses were used to identify baseline CIND or dementia. Primary outcomes were time to hospitalization for an ACSC and presence of a hospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.
All five categories of baseline neuropsychiatric disorder status were independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization for an ACSC (depression alone: Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.18, 1.52; CIND alone: HR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.10, 1.41; dementia alone: HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.55; comorbid depression and CIND: HR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.20, 1.69; comorbid depression and dementia: HR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.38, 2.00). Depression (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.84), comorbid depression and CIND (OR: 1.98, 95%CI: 1.40, 2.81), or comorbid depression and dementia (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.35) were independently associated with increased odds of rehospitalization within 30 days after hospitalization for pneumonia, CHF, or MI.
Depression, CIND, and dementia are each independently associated with potentially preventable hospitalizations in older Americans. Older adults with comorbid depression and cognitive impairment represent a particularly at-risk group that could benefit from targeted interventions.