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Risk of mortality and physiologic injury evident with lower alcohol exposure among HIV infected compared with uninfected men.
Justice AC, McGinnis KA, Tate JP, Braithwaite RS, Bryant KJ, Cook RL, Edelman EJ, Fiellin LE, Freiberg MS, Gordon AJ, Kraemer KL, Marshall BD, Williams EC, Fiellin DA. Risk of mortality and physiologic injury evident with lower alcohol exposure among HIV infected compared with uninfected men. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016 Apr 1; 161:95-103.
HIV infected (HIV+) individuals may be more susceptible to alcohol-related harm than uninfected individuals.
We analyzed data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption AUDIT-C score from 2008 to 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between alcohol exposure and mortality through July, 2014; and linear regression models to assess the association between alcohol exposure and physiologic injury based on VACS Index Scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and hepatitis C infection.
The sample included 18,145 HIV+ and 42,228 uninfected individuals. Among HIV+ individuals, 76% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA ( < 500 copies/ml). The threshold for an association of alcohol use with mortality and physiologic injury differed by HIV status. Among HIV+ individuals, AUDIT-C score 4 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.09-1.44) and 30 drinks per month (HR, 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.50) were associated with increased risk of mortality. Among uninfected individuals, AUDIT-C score 5 (HR, 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32) and 70 drinks per month (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.28) were associated with increased risk. Similarly, AUDIT-C threshold scores of 5-7 were associated with physiologic injury among HIV+ individuals (beta 0.47, 95% CI 0.22, 0.73) and a score of 8 or more was associated with injury in uninfected (beta 0.29, 95% CI 0.16, 0.42) individuals.
Despite antiretroviral therapy, HIV+ individuals experienced increased mortality and physiologic injury at lower levels of alcohol use compared with uninfected individuals. Alcohol consumption limits should be lower among HIV+ individuals.