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A pilot randomized clinical trial of an intervention to reduce overdose risk behaviors among emergency department patients at risk for prescription opioid overdose.

Bohnert AS, Bonar EE, Cunningham R, Greenwald MK, Thomas L, Chermack S, Blow FC, Walton M. A pilot randomized clinical trial of an intervention to reduce overdose risk behaviors among emergency department patients at risk for prescription opioid overdose. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016 Jun 1; 163:40-7.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prescription opioid overdose is a significant public health problem. Interventions to prevent overdose risk behaviors among high-risk patients are lacking. This study examined the impact of a motivational intervention to reduce opioid misuse and overdose risk behaviors. METHODS: This study was a pilot randomized controlled trial set in a single emergency department (ED) in which, 204 adult, English-speaking patients seeking care who reported prescription opioid misuse during the prior 3 months were recruited. Patients were randomized to either the intervention, a 30-minute motivational interviewing-based session delivered by a therapist plus educational enhanced usual care (EUC), or EUC alone. Participants completed self-reported surveys at baseline and 6 months post-baseline (87% retention rate) to measure the primary outcomes of overdose risk behaviors and the secondary outcome of non-medical opioid use. FINDINGS: Participants in the intervention condition reported significantly lower levels of overdose risk behaviors (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.87; 40.5% reduction in mean vs. 14.7%) and lower levels of non-medical opioid use (IRR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.92; 50.0% reduction in mean vs. 39.5%) at follow-up compared to the EUC condition. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first clinical trial of a behavioral intervention to reduce overdose risk. Results indicate that this single motivational enhancement session reduced prescription opioid overdose risk behaviors, including opioid misuse, among adult patients in the ED.





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