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Implementation of Sleep and Circadian Science: Recommendations from the Sleep Research Society and National Institutes of Health Workshop.

Parthasarathy S, Carskadon MA, Jean-Louis G, Owens J, Bramoweth A, Combs D, Hale L, Harrison E, Hart CN, Hasler BP, Honaker SM, Hertenstein E, Kuna S, Kushida C, Levenson JC, Murray C, Pack AI, Pillai V, Pruiksma K, Seixas A, Strollo P, Thosar SS, Williams N, Buysse D. Implementation of Sleep and Circadian Science: Recommendations from the Sleep Research Society and National Institutes of Health Workshop. Sleep. 2016 Dec 1; 39(12):2061-2075.

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ABSTRACT: A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice. The rapid development of new therapies and devices for sleep and circadian disorders, the emergence of wearable devices and mobile health, combined with the mounting interest in sleep from the public and technology industries, present a transformative opportunity for sleep and circadian science researchers. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, the Sleep Research Society and the National Institutes of Health partnered to organize a workshop focused on the translation of evidence-based interventions for sleep and circadian disorders into practice strategies that benefit population health and patient outcomes. The workshop drew on the collective expertise of implementation scientists and sleep scientists in the areas of insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and adolescent sleep health. Together, they identified implementation gaps, effective interventions, implementation strategies and relevant outcomes and created a set of recommendations that could accelerate late-stage translation of sleep and circadian rhythms research findings to benefit public health. This white paper represents the proceedings and consensus developed at the workshop. The recommendations for high-priority implementation research are targeted at sleep and implementation researchers, educators, patients, professional societies, industry partners, funding-decision and policy makers. The major recommendations for implementation science in sleep and circadian sciences were to address the following high priority future research needs: (1) Costs and economic benefits associated with screening, diagnosing, treating insomnia across different systems (health care system, employers, etc.). (2) Promoting health literacy and education of patients, providers and community stakeholders regarding obstructive sleep apnea. (3) Increase the proportion of students in grades 9 through 12 who get sufficient sleep and (4) Perform trials aimed at improving adherence to treatments for sleep-disordered breathing (particularly evaluating cognitive therapy approaches). The fourth priority area was identified as an important barrier to implementation science efforts in sleep.

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