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The Role of Opioid Analgesics in Geriatric Pain Management.
Naples JG, Gellad WF, Hanlon JT. The Role of Opioid Analgesics in Geriatric Pain Management. Clinics in geriatric medicine. 2016 Nov 1; 32(4):725-735.
When possible, chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) in older adults should be managed by nonpharmacologic modalities in conjunction with nonopioid analgesics. If moderate-to-severe pain persists despite these approaches, however, nonparenteral opioids may be considered as adjunctive therapy. This article reviews the epidemiology of opioid use and their effectiveness for CNCP in older adults and summarizes important age-related changes in opioid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics that increase the risks of adverse effects in the elderly. Finally, to assist clinicians with selecting appropriate therapy, the article concludes with an evidence-based approach to optimize opioid prescribing in older adults with CNCP.