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Tobin DG, Andrews R, Becker WC. Prescribing opioids in primary care: Safely starting, monitoring, and stopping. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. 2016 Mar 1; 83(3):207-15.
Chronic noncancer pain is common and often managed in the outpatient setting with chronic opioid therapy, even though the efficacy of this approach is uncertain and adverse effects are common. Some patients report meaningful benefit from opioids, but prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions, and many suffer harm from opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Primary care providers and their care teams often struggle to balance these risks and benefits with little outside support. The authors review common challenges when starting, monitoring, and discontinuing opioids, and offer strategies for risk-reduction and patient communication.