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Outcomes of coronavirus disease-2019 among veterans with pre-existing diagnosis of heart failure.
Rumery K, Seo A, Jiang L, Choudhary G, Shah NR, Rudolph JL, Wu WC, Erqou S. Outcomes of coronavirus disease-2019 among veterans with pre-existing diagnosis of heart failure. ESC heart failure. 2021 Jun 1; 8(3):2338-2344.
Pre-existing cardiovascular disease in general and related risk factors have been associated with poor coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. However, data on outcomes of COVID-19 among people with pre-existing diagnosis of heart failure (HF) have not been studied in sufficient detail. We aimed to perform detailed characterization of the association of pre-existing HF with COVID-19 outcomes.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A retrospective cohort study based on Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data comparing 30 day mortality and hospital admission rates after COVID-19 diagnosis among Veterans with and without pre-existing diagnosis of HF. Cox-regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with adjustment for covariates. Among 31 051 veterans (97% male) with COVID-19, 6148 had pre-existing diagnosis of HF. The mean (SD) age of patients with HF was 70 (13) whereas the mean (SD) age of patients without HF was 57 (17). Within the HF group with available data on left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), 1844 patients (63.4%) had an EF of > 45%, and 1063 patients (36.6%) had an EF of = 45%. Patients in the HF cohort had higher 30 day mortality (5.4% vs. 1.5%) and admission (18.5% vs. 8.4%) rates after diagnosis of COVID-19. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, HRs (95% CIs) for 30 day mortality and for 30 day hospital admissions were 1.87 (1.61-2.17) and 1.79 (1.66-1.93), respectively. After additional adjustment for medical comorbidities, HRs for 30 day mortality and for 30 day hospital admissions were 1.37 (1.15-1.64) and 1.27 (1.16-1.38), respectively. The findings were similar among HF patients with preserved vs. reduced EF, among those taking vs. not taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, and among those taking vs. not taking anticoagulants.
Patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing diagnosis of HF had a higher risk of 30 day mortality and hospital admissions compared to those without history of HF. The findings were similar by EF categories and by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors or anticoagulant use.