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Implementing diagnostic stewardship to improve diagnosis of urinary tract infections across three medical centers: A qualitative assessment.
Claeys KC, Weston LE, Pineles L, Morgan DJ, Krein SL. Implementing diagnostic stewardship to improve diagnosis of urinary tract infections across three medical centers: A qualitative assessment. Infection control and hospital epidemiology. 2023 Jul 10; 1-10.
Urine-culture diagnostic stewardship aims to decrease misdiagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, these interventions are not widely adopted. We examined UTI diagnosis and management practices to identify barriers to and facilitators of diagnostic stewardship implementation.
Using a qualitative descriptive design, we conducted semistructured interviews at 3 Veterans' Affairs medical centers. Interviews were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022 via Zoom videoconferencing using an interview guide and visual prototypes of proposed interventions. Interviewees were asked about current practices and thoughts on proposed interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting. We used a rapid analysis matrix approach to summarize key interview findings and compare practices and perceptions across sites.
We interviewed 31 stakeholders and end users. All sites had an antimicrobial stewardship program but limited initiatives targeting appropriate diagnosis and management of UTIs. The majority of those interviewed identified the importance of diagnostic stewardship. Perceptions of specific interventions ranged widely by site. For urine-culture ordering, all 3 sites agreed that documentation of symptomology would improve culturing practices but did not want it to interrupt workflow. Representatives at 2 sites expressed interest in conditional urine-culture processing and 1 was opposed. All sites had similar mechanisms to report culture results but varied in perceptions of the proposed interventions. Feedback from end users was used to develop a general diagnostic stewardship implementation checklist.
Interviewees thought diagnostic stewardship was important. Qualitative assessment involving key stakeholders in the UTI diagnostic process improved understanding of site-specific beliefs and practices to better implement interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting.