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Perceptions of race/ethnicity-based discrimination: a review of measures and evaluation of their usefulness for the health care setting.

Kressin NR, Raymond KL, Manze M. Perceptions of race/ethnicity-based discrimination: a review of measures and evaluation of their usefulness for the health care setting. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved. 2008 Aug 1; 19(3):697-730.

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Abstract:

BACKGROUND: To assess discrimination in health care, reliable, valid, and comprehensive measures of racism/discrimination are needed. OBJECTIVE: To review literature on measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination and evaluate their characteristics and usefulness in assessing discrimination from health care providers. METHODS: Literature review of measures of perceived race/ethnicity-based discrimination (1966-2007), using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. RESULTS: We identified 34 measures of racism/discrimination; 16 specifically assessed dynamics in the health care setting. Few measures were theoretically based; most assessed only general dimensions of racism and focused specifically on the experiences of African American patients. Acceptable psychometric properties were documented for about half of the instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Additional measures are needed for detailed assessments of perceived discrimination in the health care setting; they should be relevant for a wide variety of racial/ethnic groups, and they must assess how racism/discrimination affects health care decision making and treatments offered.





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