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Visual Dysfunction in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

O'Neil ME, Gleitsmann K, Motu’apuaka M, Freeman M, Kondo K, Storzbach D, Kansagara D, Carlson KF. Visual Dysfunction in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review. 2014 Sep 24; 9(1).


In 2009, approximately 3.5 million people sought treatment related to a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States (U.S.), just over 1% of the U.S. population. Researchers estimate that approximately 15% of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) U.S. Service Members have incurred TBI during deployment. This equates to 390,000 of the 2.6 million Service Members who have deployed as of 2014. Given that intact visual functioning depends on portions of the brain interacting in complex ways, there are multiple potential mechanisms through which TBI can result in visual dysfunction. To provide relevant data for policymakers, optometrists, ophthalmologists, rehabilitation specialists, and others who provide services for Veterans with TBI history, we conducted a systematic review of the prevalence and types of visual dysfunction in individuals with a history of TBI. Key Questions are: Key Question 1: What is the prevalence or incidence of visual dysfunction in a general population of individuals who have been diagnosed with a TBI? Key Question 2: What are the types of visual dysfunction reported by individuals who have been diagnosed with a TBI and are presenting to eye care clinics?

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