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CDA 08-025 – HSR&D Study

 
CDA 08-025
TBI & PTSD Comorbidity in OIF/OEF Veterans: Prevalence & Predictors
Kathleen F. Carlson MS PhD
VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR
Portland, OR
Funding Period: February 2010 - January 2015

BACKGROUND/RATIONALE:
Veterans have returned from recent combat deployments with unprecedented rates of physical and psychological trauma. Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high priority areas for the VA. However, relatively few studies have examined the clinical manifestation, treatment, and successful rehabilitation of Veterans diagnosed with both of these conditions. The focus of this career development award (CDA) was to examine, and ultimately improve, social and vocational functioning among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of TBI, PTSD, and other common comorbidities.

OBJECTIVE(S):
This CDA supported three successive projects that formed the basis of a merit-review proposal in which OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with TBI and PTSD were surveyed about vocational functioning and vocational rehabilitation needs and interests. The objectives of the three CDA projects were to: 1) Examine the validity of diagnosis codes in VA administrative data for identifying OEF/OIF/OND Veterans diagnosed with TBI and PTSD; 2) Estimate the prevalence and describe sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with TBI and PTSD using the most valid diagnosis codes; and 3) Develop a patient-centered survey to examine risk factors for vocational dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with TBI and PTSD, focusing on those that are most amenable to intervention.

METHODS:
This research was grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Vocational functioning was emphasized because this domain is likely to be impaired among Veterans with TBI and PTSD. Project 1 involved a retrospective review of data from the VA Comprehensive TBI Evaluation Template merged by scrambled SSNs to data from the National Patient Care Database containing diagnosis codes. Measures of concordance between the TBI Evaluation results and ICD-9 codes were used to estimate the validity of diagnosis codes in identifying clinician-confirmed cases of TBI. Project 2 involved a cross-sectional study utilizing VA administrative data to estimate prevalence and correlates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses. Descriptive statistics were generated and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate disease prevalence and identify groups at greatest risk. Project 3 utilized literature review, expert consultation, and qualitative research methods to develop a patient-centered survey instrument for fielding as part of the subsequent merit-review proposal focused on vocational functioning.

FINDINGS/RESULTS:
Not yet available.

IMPACT:
This CDA has helped develop and inform methods to identify VA-enrolled OEF/OIF/OND Veterans who have been diagnosed with TBI and PTSD, describe patterns of comorbidities among these Veterans, and examine their social and vocational functioning. The long-term goal, and ultimate impact, of this research is to ensure that Veterans with a history of TBI receive the most appropriate services to maximize their social and vocational functioning.


External Links for this Project

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PUBLICATIONS:

Journal Articles

  1. Carlson KF, Nugent SM, Grill J, Sayer NA. Accuracy of external cause-of-injury coding in VA polytrauma patient discharge records. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2010 Nov 9; 47(8):689-97. [view]
  2. Griffin JM, Lee MK, Bangerter LR, Van Houtven CH, Friedemann-Sánchez G, Phelan SM, Carlson KF, Meis LA. Burden and mental health among caregivers of veterans with traumatic brain injury/polytrauma. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2017 Jan 1; 87(2):139-148. [view]
  3. Carlson KF, Meis LA, Jensen AC, Simon AB, Gravely AA, Taylor BC, Bangerter A, Schaaf KW, Griffin JM. Caregiver reports of subsequent injuries among veterans with traumatic brain injury after discharge from inpatient polytrauma rehabilitation programs. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2012 Jan 1; 27(1):14-25. [view]
  4. O'Neil ME, Carlson KF, Storzbach D, Brenner LA, Freeman M, Quiñones AR, Motu'apuaka M, Kansagara D. Factors associated with mild traumatic brain injury in veterans and military personnel: a systematic review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. 2014 Mar 1; 20(3):249-61. [view]
  5. O'Neil ME, Carlson KF, Storzbach D, Brenner LA, Freeman M, Quiñones AR, Motu'apuaka M, Kansagara D. Factors Associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans and Military Personnel: A Systematic Review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS. 2014 Feb 5; 1-13. [view]
  6. Carlson KF, Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Cutting A, Kerns R, Sayer NA. Headache diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans enrolled in VA: a gender comparison. Headache. 2013 Nov 1; 53(10):1573-82. [view]
  7. Johnson PJ, Carlson KF, Hearst MO. Healthcare disparities for American Indian veterans in the United States: a population-based study. Medical care. 2010 Jun 1; 48(6):563-9. [view]
  8. Theodoroff SM, Lewis MS, Folmer RL, Henry JA, Carlson KF. Hearing impairment and tinnitus: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes in US service members and veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2015 Jan 19; 37:71-85. [view]
  9. Orazem RJ, Frazier PA, Schnurr PP, Oleson HE, Carlson KF, Litz BT, Sayer NA. Identity adjustment among Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with reintegration difficulty. Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy. 2017 Aug 1; 9(Suppl 1):4-11. [view]
  10. Sayer NA, Orazem RJ, Noorbaloochi S, Gravely A, Frazier P, Carlson KF, Schnurr PP, Oleson H. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with Reintegration Problems: Differences by Veterans Affairs Healthcare User Status. Administration and policy in mental health. 2015 Jul 1; 42(4):493-503. [view]
  11. Sayer NA, Frazier P, Orazem RJ, Murdoch M, Gravely A, Carlson KF, Hintz S, Noorbaloochi S. Military to civilian questionnaire: a measure of postdeployment community reintegration difficulty among veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs medical care. Journal of traumatic stress. 2011 Dec 7; 24(6):660-70. [view]
  12. Henry JA, Stewart BJ, Griest S, Kaelin C, Zaugg TL, Carlson K. Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Two Methods of Tinnitus Intervention to Two Control Conditions. Ear and Hearing. 2016 Nov 1; 37(6):e346-e359. [view]
  13. Henry JA, Zaugg TL, Myers PJ, Schmidt CJ, Griest S, Legro MW, Kaelin C, Thielman EJ, Storzbach DM, McMillan GP, Carlson KF. Pilot study to develop telehealth tinnitus management for persons with and without traumatic brain injury. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2013 Aug 12; 49(7):1025-42. [view]
  14. O'Neil ME, Callahan M, Carlson KF, Roost M, Laman-Maharg B, Twamley EW, Iverson GL, Storzbach D. Postconcussion symptoms reported by Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with and without blast exposure, mild traumatic brain injury, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2017 Jun 1; 39(5):449-458. [view]
  15. Carlson KF, Gravely AA, Noorbaloochi S, Simon AB, Bangerter AK, Sayer NA. Post-deployment injury among new combat veterans enrolled in Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare. Injury Prevention : Journal of The International Society For Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention. 2011 Oct 1; 17(5):343-7. [view]
  16. Widome R, Kehle SM, Carlson KF, Laska MN, Gulden A, Lust K. Post-traumatic stress disorder and health risk behaviors among Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans attending college. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2011 Jul 1; 35(4):387-92. [view]
  17. Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Carlson KF, Cifu DX, Cutting A, Bidelspach DE, Sayer NA. Prevalence and costs of co-occurring traumatic brain injury with and without psychiatric disturbance and pain among Afghanistan and Iraq War Veteran V.A. users. Medical care. 2012 Apr 1; 50(4):342-6. [view]
  18. Carlson KF, Kehle SM, Meis LA, Greer N, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Sayer NA, Dobscha SK, Wilt TJ. Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the evidence. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2011 Mar 1; 26(2):103-15. [view]
  19. Carlson KF, Nelson D, Orazem RJ, Nugent S, Cifu DX, Sayer NA. Psychiatric diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans screened for deployment-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of traumatic stress. 2010 Feb 1; 23(1):17-24. [view]
  20. Kane WG, Wright DA, Fu R, Carlson KF. Racial/ethnic and insurance status disparities in discharge to posthospitalization care for patients with traumatic brain injury. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2014 Nov 1; 29(6):E10-7. [view]
  21. Henry JA, Thielman EJ, Zaugg TL, Kaelin C, Schmidt CJ, Griest S, McMillan GP, Myers P, Rivera I, Baldwin R, Carlson K. Randomized Controlled Trial in Clinical Settings to Evaluate Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Used With Progressive Tinnitus Management. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research : Jslhr. 2017 May 24; 60(5):1378-1397. [view]
  22. Sayer NA, Noorbaloochi S, Frazier PA, Pennebaker JW, Orazem RJ, Schnurr PP, Murdoch M, Carlson KF, Gravely A, Litz BT. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing to Address Readjustment Difficulties Among U.S. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans. Journal of traumatic stress. 2015 Oct 1; 28(5):381-90. [view]
  23. Sayer NA, Carlson K, Frazier P. Reintegration Challenges in U.S. Service Members and Veterans Following Combat Deployment. Social issues and policy review. 2014 Jan 13; 8(1):33-73. [view]
  24. Sayer NA, Noorbaloochi S, Frazier P, Carlson K, Gravely A, Murdoch M. Reintegration problems and treatment interests among Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans receiving VA medical care. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.). 2010 Jun 1; 61(6):589-97. [view]
  25. Carlson KF, Barnes JE, Hagel EM, Taylor BC, Cifu DX, Sayer NA. Sensitivity and specificity of traumatic brain injury diagnosis codes in United States Department of Veterans Affairs administrative data. Brain injury. 2013 Jun 1; 27(6):640-50. [view]
  26. Lu MW, Carlson KF, Duckart JP, Dobscha SK. The effects of age on initiation of mental health treatment after positive PTSD screens among Veterans Affairs primary care patients. General hospital psychiatry. 2012 Nov 1; 34(6):654-9. [view]
  27. Henry JA, Griest S, Zaugg TL, Thielman E, Kaelin C, Galvez G, Carlson KF. Tinnitus and hearing survey: a screening tool to differentiate bothersome tinnitus from hearing difficulties. American Journal of Audiology. 2015 Mar 1; 24(1):66-77. [view]
  28. Hoffman BD, Gallardo AR, Carlson KF. Unsafe from the Start: Serious Misuse of Car Safety Seats at Newborn Discharge. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2016 Apr 1; 171:48-54. [view]
  29. Leonhard MJ, Wright DA, Fu R, Lehrfeld DP, Carlson KF. Urban/Rural disparities in Oregon pediatric traumatic brain injury. Injury epidemiology. 2015 Dec 11; 2(1):32. [view]
  30. Gravely AA, Cutting A, Nugent S, Grill J, Carlson K, Spoont M. Validity of PTSD diagnoses in VA administrative data: comparison of VA administrative PTSD diagnoses to self-reported PTSD Checklist scores. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2011 Jan 1; 48(1):21-30. [view]
Journal Other

  1. Carlson KF, O'Neil ME, Ensley M, Tun SM, Hutson L, Storzbach D. Associations between Post-concussive Symptoms and Psychosocial Problems Endorsed by United States Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. [Abstract]. Brain Injury : [Bi]. 2012 Apr 1; 26(4-5):779-780. [view]
  2. Griffin JM, Friedemann-Sanchez G, Jensen AC, Taylor BC, Gravely AA, Clothier BA, Phelan SM, Carlson KF, van Houtven C, Ceperich S, Pickett T, Thors C, Van Ryn M. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Challenges for Families after VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. [Abstract]. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2010 Sep 30; 25(5):398. [view]
  3. Carlson KF, Jensen AC, Simon AB, Gravely AA, Taylor BC, Bangerter AK, Meis LA, Schaaf KW, Griffin JM. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Risk of Re-injury after Discharge from VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. [Abstract]. The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation. 2010 Sep 30; 25(5):399. [view]
Book Chapters

  1. Sayer NA, Carlson KF, Schnurr P. Assessment of functioning and disability in individuals with PTSD. In: Clinical Manual for Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Incorporated; 2010. Chapter 10. 255-287 p. [view]
  2. Griffin JM, Friedemann-Sánchez G, Carlson KF, Jensen AC, Gravely A, Taylor BC, Phelan SM, Wilder-Schaaf K, Dyche Ceperich S, Harold Van Houtven C. Resources and Coping Strategies Among Caregivers of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Veterans with Polytrauma and Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Wadsworth SM, Riggs DS, editors. Military Deployment and its Consequences for Families. 2014 ed. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2013. Chapter 14. 259-280 p. [view]
Reports

  1. O'Neil M, Gleitsmann K, Motu'apuaka M, Freeman M, Kondo K, Storzbach D, Kansagara D, Carlson K. Visual Dysfunction in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2014 Sep 1. 58 p. Report No.: VA ESP Project #05-225. [view]
HSR&D or QUERI Publications

  1. O'Neil ME, Carlson KF, Storzbach D, Brenner LA, Freeman M, Quinones AR, Motu'apuaka M, Ensley M, Kansagara D. Complications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans and Military Personnel: A Systematic Review. 2012 Dec 1; 12(1). [view]
  2. O'Neil ME, Gleitsmann K, Motu’apuaka M, Freeman M, Kondo K, Storzbach D, Kansagara D, Carlson KF. Visual Dysfunction in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review. 2014 Sep 24; 9(1). [view]
Center Products

  1. Taylor BC, Campbell E, Nugent S, Cutting A, Bidelspach DE, Carlson KF, Sayer NA. Fiscal Year 2012 VA Utilization Report for Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans Diagnosed with TBI. 2014 Feb 1; 2(1). [view]
VA Cyberseminars

  1. Carlson KF, Cifu D, O'Neil ME, Ruff R, Scholten J, Storzbach D. Complications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans and Military Personnel: A Systematic Review. [Cyberseminar]. 2013 Mar 26. [view]
  2. Carlson KF. Spotlight on Evidence-based Synthesis Program: Assessment and Treatment of Individuals with History of TBI and PTSD. [Cyberseminar]. 2010 May 24. [view]
Government Briefings

  1. Henry JA, Thielman E, Zaugg T, Kaelin C, Carlson KF. Telephone-Based Progressive Tinnitus Management for Persons With and Without Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial: Briefing before the Department of Defense; 2017 Aug 27; Kissimmee, Florida. [view]
Conference Presentations

  1. Carlson KF, O'Neil ME, Ensley M, Tun SM, Hutson L, Storzbach D. Associations between Post-concussive Symptoms and Psychosocial Problems Endorsed by United States Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Poster session presented at: International Brain Injury Association Biennial World Congress; 2012 Mar 24; Edinburgh, Scotland. [view]
  2. O'Neil ME, Carlson KF, Storzbach D, Brenner LA, Freeman M, Quinones AR, Motu’apuaka M, Ensley M, Kansagara D. Complications of Mild TBI in Veterans and Military Personnel: A Systematic Review. Paper presented at: Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine National Capital Area TBI Research Symposium; 2013 Apr 29; Rockville, MD. [view]
  3. Gordon J, Helt W, Lewis MS, McMillan G, Theodoroff SM, Blankenship C, Thielman E, Carlson KF, Griest SE, Austin D, Henry JA. Demographic and Audiological Characteristics of Veterans and Impact of Hearing Loss on Their Lives. Poster session presented at: American Academy of Audiology Annual Convention; 2015 Mar 27; San Antonio, TX. [view]
  4. Pogoda TK, Carlson KF, Pilver C, Gormley KE, Resnick SG. Department of Veterans Affairs Provider Perceptions of Supported Employment Services to Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. Poster session presented at: VA HSR&D / QUERI National Meeting; 2015 Jul 9; Philadelphia, PA. [view]
  5. Pogoda TK, Carlson KF, Pilver C, Gormley KE, Resnick SG. Department of Veterans Affairs Provider Perceptions of Supported Employment Services to Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. Poster session presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2015 Jun 15; Minneapolis, MN. [view]
  6. Griest SE, Carlson KF, Theodoroff SM, Henry JA. Documentation of Overall Noise and Solvent Exposures in Recently Separated Military Personnel. Poster session presented at: American Academy of Audiology Annual Convention; 2015 Mar 27; San Antonio, TX. [view]
  7. Sell SM, Feeney P, Vachhani J, Folmer R, Saunders G, Carlson KF. Facilitators of Accessing Hearing Healthcare after Positive Hearing Loss Screen. Paper presented at: Academy of Rehabilitative Audiology Annual Meeting; 2014 Sep 9; Philadelphia, PA. [view]
  8. Ensley M, O'Neil ME, Hutson L, Tun S, Carlson KF, Storzbach D. Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity of the British Columbia Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (BC-PSI) in Veterans With and Without Blast Exposure and Mild TBI. Poster session presented at: International Neuropsychological Society Annual Meeting; 2012 Mar 18; Montreal, Canada. [view]
  9. Carlson KF, Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Kerns R, Sayer NA. Gender Differences in Pain Diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veteran VA Users with Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2012 Jun 25; Orlando, FL. [view]
  10. Carlson KF, Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Kerns R, Sayer NA. Gender Differences in Pain Diagnoses among OEF/OIF Veteran VA Users with Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D / QUERI National Meeting; 2012 Jul 19; National Harbor, MD. [view]
  11. Carlson KF, Hammer L, Brockwood K, Bodner T, Mohr C, Wan W. Health and Functioning in a Sample of Post-9/11 War Veterans Employed in the Civilian Workforce: Results from the Study for Employment Retention of Veterans (SERVe). Paper presented at: Military Health System Research Symposium; 2016 Aug 15; Orlando, FL. [view]
  12. Carlson KF, Fernandez AG, Betz ME. Injury Prevention Counseling During Well-Child Visits to U.S. Physicians: 2005-2009. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2012 Oct 28; San Francisco, CA. [view]
  13. Carlson KF, Fernandez AG, Ryan AD, Betz ME. Injury Prevention Counselling During Well-Child Visits in the USA: Rates and Determinants. Poster session presented at: Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion World Annual Conference; 2012 Oct 4; Wellington, New Zealand. [view]
  14. Carlson KF. Mental Health and Pain Diagnoses Among New Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: VA National Research Week; 2012 Apr 27; Portland, OR. [view]
  15. Carlson KF, Kress A, McAndrew L, Schneiderman A. Motor Vehicle Crashes among Recent United States Military Veterans: Comparison by Deployment Status. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2014 Nov 17; New Orleans, LA. [view]
  16. Griffin JM, Friedemann-Sanchez G, Jensen AC, van Ryn M, Carlson KF, van Houtven C, Taylor BC, Phelan SM, Gravely AA, Clothier BA, Levison D, Meis LA, Wilder Schaaf K, Pickett T, Ceperich S, Poole J, Thors C. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Challenges for Families after VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. Poster session presented at: VA Supporting Veterans At Home Conference; 2010 Jul 14; Arlington, VA. [view]
  17. Griffin JM, Friedemann-Sanchez G, Jensen AC, Van Ryn M, Carlson KF, Phelan SM, Gravely AA, Levison D, Van Houtven CH, Meis LA, Taylor BC, Pickett T, Ceperich S, Poole J, Thors C. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Systems of Care and Challenges for Families. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2010 Jun 28; Boston, MA. [view]
  18. Griffin JM, Friedemann-Sanchez G, Jensen AC, Taylor BC, Gravely AA, Clothier B, Phelan S, Carlson KF, Van Houtven C, Ceperich S, Pickett T, Thors C, van Ryn M. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Challenges for Families after VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. Paper presented at: National Association of State Head Injury Administrators / North American Brain Injury Society Joint Meeting; 2010 Oct 7; Minneapolis, MN. [view]
  19. Carlson KF, Jensen AC, Simon AB, Gravely AA, Taylor BC, Bangerter AK, Meis LA, Wilder Schaaf K, Griffin JM. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Risk of Reinjury after Discharge from VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. Paper presented at: National Association of State Head Injury Administrators / North American Brain Injury Society Joint Meeting; 2010 Oct 7; Minneapolis, MN. [view]
  20. Carlson KF, Jensen AC, Simon AB, Gravely AA, Taylor BC, Bangerter AK, Meis LA, Schaaf KW, Griffin JM. Polytrauma and Blast Related Injuries: Risk of Reinjury after Discharge from VA Inpatient Rehabilitation. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2010 Nov 10; Denver, CO. [view]
  21. Fernandez AG, Lambert WE, O'Neil ME, Peters D, Carlson KF. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Hospitalization among Recent Veterans Enrolled in VA. Paper presented at: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2013 Nov 6; Boston, MA. [view]
  22. Myers P, Henry JA, Zaugg T, Kaelin C, Carlson KF, Gonzalez J, Wood J, Greist S, Legro M, McDermott D, Thielman E, Darco S, Jones A, Rivera I, Trueheart C, Baldwin R, Schmidt C. Progressive Tinnitus Management (PTM) Multisite Study. Poster session presented at: Joint Defense / Veteran Audiology Annual Conference; 2015 Mar 3; Orlando, FL. [view]
  23. McCabe CT, Mohr CD, Hammer LB, Carlson KF. PTSD and Motivated Alcohol Use among Military Service Members: A Conditional Process Model of Social Support. Paper presented at: Social Personality Health Network Annual Preconference; 2016 Jan 28; San Diego, CA. [view]
  24. Kane W, Wright D, Fu R, Carlson KF. Racial/Ethnic and Insurance Status Disparities in Post-Hospitalization Care for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Poster session presented at: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition; 2013 Nov 6; Boston, MA. [view]
  25. Sayer NA, Noorbaloochi S, Frazier P, Pennebaker JW, Orazem RJ, Schnurr PP, Murdoch M, Carlson KF, Gravely A, Litz B. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing for Veteran Reintegration Difficulty. Paper presented at: International Center of Mental Health Policy and Economics Annual Conference; 2014 Sep 26; Washington, DC. [view]
  26. Sayer NA, Noorbaloochi S, Frazier P, Pennebaker JW, Orazem RJ, Schnurr PP, Murdoch M, Carlson KF, Gravely AA, Litz B. Randomized Controlled Trial of Online Expressive Writing for Veteran Reintegration Difficulty. Paper presented at: American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting; 2014 Feb 15; Chicago, IL. [view]
  27. Jensen AC, Carlson KF, Van Houtven CH, Taylor BC, Gravely AA, Griffin JM. Ready for Prime Time: Evidence-Based Research Programs and Tools Ready for Clinical Use. Paper presented at: VA Office of Patient Care Services National Caregiver Support Conference; 2011 Aug 3; Washington, DC. [view]
  28. O'Neil ME, McAndrew L, Storzbach D, Cifu DX, Sayer NA, Carlson KF. Risk of Hospitalization due to Motor Vehicle Crashes among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans Diagnosed with Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: International Brain Injury Association Biennial World Congress; 2014 Mar 22; San Francisco, CA. [view]
  29. Carlson KF, Pogoda TK, Resnick SG, O'Neil ME, Sayer NA. Supported Employment for Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Needs and Interests. Poster session presented at: VA HSR&D / QUERI National Meeting; 2015 Jul 8; Philadelphia, PA. [view]
  30. Miura L, Lemrick J, Carter N, Carlson KF. Taking Steps Towards Fall Prevention with Stepping On. Paper presented at: Oregon Nursing Research and Quality Consortium; 2016 Apr 18; Oregon City, OR. [view]
  31. Zaugg TL, Karpel S, Schmidt CJ, Myers P, Kaelin CS, Thielman E, Carlson KF, Legro M, Griest S, McDermott D, Henry JA. Telephone-Based Education for Bothersome Tinnitus. Paper presented at: VA National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research Biennial Conference; 2013 Sep 19; Portland, OR. [view]
  32. Carlson KF, Pogoda TK, Resnick SG. The Provision of Supported Employment to Veterans with TBI in VHA. Paper presented at: Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Summit; 2016 Sep 13; Falls Church, VA. [view]
  33. Henry JA, Griest SE, Blankenship C, Gordon J, Helt W, Thielman E, Theodoroff S, Lewis MS, Carlson KF. Tinnitus: Constant, Intermittent, Temporary, or Absent? Poster session presented at: American Academy of Audiology Annual Convention; 2015 Mar 27; San Antonio, TX. [view]
  34. Carlson KF, Barnes JE, Hagel EM, Cifu DX, Sayer NA. Validity of Diagnosis Codes in VA Administrative Data for Identifying OEF/OIF Veterans with History of Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D National Meeting; 2011 Feb 18; National Harbor, MD. [view]
  35. Carlson KF, Pogoda TK, Resnick SG, O'Neil ME, Twamley EW, Sayer NA. Vocational Service Needs and Interests among Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury. Paper presented at: AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting; 2016 Jun 27; Boston, MA. [view]


DRA: Military and Environmental Exposures, Mental, Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders, Acute and Combat-Related Injury, Brain and Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders
DRE: Epidemiology, Prognosis
Keywords: PTSD, Traumatic Brain Injury
MeSH Terms: none

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