Post-deployment Health Outcomes Associated with Multiple Deployment-Related Factors
This study examined the unique contributions of various deployment-related exposures and injuries to current post-deployment physical, psychological, and general health outcomes in National Guard members. Findings showed that various deployment-related experiences increased the risk for post-deployment adverse mental and physical health outcomes, individually and in combination. Most adverse outcomes had associations with multiple deployment-related factors. Deployment-related mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with post-deployment depression, anxiety, PTSD, and post-concussive symptoms such as headaches and dizziness. Combat exposures with and without physical injury were associated not only with PTSD, but also with numerous post-concussive and non-post-concussive symptoms (e.g., chest pain, indigestion). Associations between blast exposure and abdominal pain, pain on deep breathing, shortness of breath, hearing loss, and tinnitus suggested residual barotrauma. The experience of seeing others wounded or killed, or experiencing the death of a buddy or leader, was associated with indigestion and headaches, but not with depression, anxiety, or PTSD. Findings indicate that an integrated interdisciplinary healthcare approach would be beneficial for Veterans with multiple deployment-related health issues. Such a system of care is currently being used within the VA Polytrauma programs.
Date: November 1, 2012
- Concussion/mild TBI During Deployment Does Not Result in Significant
Post-Deployment Health Effects Separate from PTSD
This study assessed the longitudinal associations between concussion/mild TBI (mTBI) and PTSD symptoms reported in-theater and longer-term psychosocial outcomes in 953 combat-deployed National Guard soldiers. Findings show that the rate of self-reported concussion/mTBI was 9% at Time 1 (one month before returning home from Iraq) and 22% at Time 2 (one year later). Differences may be explained by recall bias and/or poor reliability of the TBI screening instrument. Prevalence of probable PTSD at Times 1 and 2 was 8% and 14%, respectively; and for probable depression was 9% and 18%, respectively. At Time 2, 42% screened positive for problematic drinking and 29% endorsed clinically-significant non-specific somatic complaints. Self-reported post-concussive symptoms at Time 2 were common. For example, among those who reported neither mTBI nor PTSD, 23% reported balance problems, 57% reported tinnitus, 60% reported memory problems, and 64% reported concentration problems and irritability. Post-concussive symptom prevalences were even higher among those who reported mTBI and/or PTSD. The increased post-concussive symptoms reported by soldiers who also reported concussion/mTBI were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for post-deployment PTSD symptoms, suggesting that post-concussion symptoms may be largely explained by PTSD. Findings suggest that early identification and evidence-based treatment of PTSD may be important to the management of post-concussive symptoms following deployment.
Date: January 1, 2011
- Demands on VHA for
Post-Deployment Healthcare Needs of OEF/OIF Veterans will be Overshadowed by the Needs of Older Veterans
This article discusses the implications for the Veterans healthcare system of the demand for healthcare services from OEF/OIF Veterans. Findings show that although the pressing needs of newly discharged Veterans require immediate attention, especially in the areas of TBI, PTSD, and physical disability services, the demand for immediate post-deployment VA healthcare services by OEF/OIF Veterans will be overshadowed by the demands of aging Korean and Vietnam War Veterans (and, eventually, aging OEF/OIF Veterans), in terms of the number of patients and the average cost of their care. Thus, the major demand on VA healthcare services will be from aging Veterans whose usage and needs for services will be relatively stable and predictable; however, it is the extra cost for OEF/OIF Veterans that is difficult to quantify because of the unknowns (e.g., nature, severity, and number of PTSD and TBI cases).
Date: September 1, 2009