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IIR 15-298 – HSR&D Study

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IIR 15-298
Improving Outcomes among Medical/Surgical Inpatients with Alcohol Use Disorders
Christine Timko PhD
VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA
Palo Alto, CA
Funding Period: September 2017 - August 2021

BACKGROUND/RATIONALE:
In FY2014, over 57,000 Veterans with diagnosed alcohol use disorders (AUDs) received VHA inpatient medical-surgical services. This most likely underrepresents the prevalence of AUDs among Veteran inpatients, because these conditions often go undiagnosed during hospital stays. The high prevalence of AUDs among VHA medical-surgical inpatients is of critical concern because AUDs and medical conditions exacerbate one another, and their co-occurrence increases the use of costly health services. Yet, there are no evidence-based strategies that improve outcomes in this patient population by means of increased utilization (initiation, engagement) of AUD treatment services. We have identified Drinking Options: Motivate, Shared Decisions, Telemonitor (DO-MoST) as a potential solution to the critical need for evidence-based strategies.

OBJECTIVE(S):
This project will evaluate DO-MoST as a new and innovative intervention to facilitate the transition from inpatient medical-surgical care to AUD treatment in primary and specialty care settings, thereby improving Veterans' AUD and medical outcomes. DO-MoST entails use of motivational interviewing and a decision aid during the inpatient stay to facilitate informed choices about post-discharge drinking options and resources for help to change drinking, if desired, followed by telephone calls with the patient to continue to motivate and support decisions. In addition to determining the effectiveness of DO-MoST, this project includes a process evaluation - that is, will gather information from providers and patients on DO-MoST's implementation at the two project sites - to inform VA's potential widespread implementation of DO-MoST with medical-surgical patients with AUDs.

METHODS:
Using an effectiveness/implementation Hybrid Type 1 design, incorporating a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and process evaluation to facilitate future implementation, this project has three Specific Aims.
Aim 1: Adapt a decision aid being implemented with AUD patients in non-VA primary care settings to be appropriate for Veterans with AUDs in medical-surgical inpatient settings. With this prototype, we will conduct alpha testing with patients and providers, and adapt and pilot the decision aid to finalize it for use in the RCT.
Aim 2: Conduct DO-MoST at two VA facilities (Ann Arbor and Palo Alto) and evaluate its effectiveness.
The primary hypotheses are: Patients in DO-MoST, compared to patients in usual care (UC), will be more likely to (1) utilize AUD help (initiate, engage), (2) have better AUD (fewer heavy drinking days) and medical (physical status) outcomes, and (3) have fewer and more delayed acute care episodes (Emergency Department visits, rehospitalizations). Patients will be assessed at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-discharge, for outcomes and non-VA health care; VA health care will be assessed with VA databases. GLMM analyses will be conducted to compare the UC and DO-MoST groups on course of outcomes.
Aim 3: Conduct a qualitative process evaluation to inform the wider implementation of DO-MoST, using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. The purpose is to provide guidance for VA facilities' broader adoption of DO-MoST in the future, including its possible adaptation for diverse subpopulations of Veterans, such as patients with mental health diagnoses (e.g., PTSD).

FINDINGS/RESULTS:
We have completed Aim 1, that is, we have adapt a decision aid to be appropriate for Veterans with AUDs in medical-surgical inpatient settings. With this prototype, we have conducted alpha and beta testing with patients and providers, and adapted and piloted the decision aid to finalize it for use in the RCT. We have begun enrolling participants for Aim 2, the RCT of DO-MoST versus UC.

IMPACT:
This project has developed a decision aid and is comprehensively examining DO-MoST as a novel and groundbreaking approach to providing a bridge between inpatient medical-surgical treatment and AUD treatment. Decision Aids have been used successfully in a number of contexts, but never with medical-AUD inpatients. Our operations partners from VHA Mental Health Services and Medical Service are committed to directly addressing the dangerous, costly pattern of Veterans obtaining inpatient medical-surgical services but not receiving the AUD treatment they need. The project is focused on priorities in the VA Blueprint for Excellence, of HSR&D Service, and of the PIs' HSR&D Centers of Innovation.

PUBLICATIONS:
None at this time.


DRA: Substance Abuse and Addiction
DRE: Treatment - Efficacy/Effectiveness Clinical Trial, Treatment - Implementation, TRL - Applied/Translational
Keywords: Addictive Disorders, Outcomes - Patient, Substance Use and Abuse
MeSH Terms: none