Due to the disputed efficacy of prostate cancer (CaP) screening and treatment, most authorities recommend that providers inform and involve patients in CaP screening decisions.
This study evaluated two interventions designed to facilitate this process.
1152 male veterans age 50+ with no CaP and primary care appointments at four VA medical facilities in VISN 23 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: mailed pamphlet intervention, mailed video intervention, or usual care (control). Intervention materials were mailed two weeks prior to a target primary care appointment and patient telephone surveys were conducted one week (T1) and one year (T2) after the target appointment. Outcomes included: a 10- item validated knowledge index; responses to questions on CaP natural history, treatment efficacy, PSA accuracy, and expert disagreement about the PSA; whether screening was discussed with provider; scores on decision information seeking, participation and satisfaction scales; screening and treatment preferences; and PSA testing rates.
The survey response rates were 80% at T1 and 70% at T2 (81% for those completing the T1 survey). Mean scores on the knowledge index were higher for video (7.44, p=.001) and pamphlet (7.26, p=.03) subjects, relative to controls (6.90 ). Video and pamphlet subjects reported significantly higher percentages of correct responses relative to controls to questions on CaP natural history (63, 63, and 54% respectively); treatment efficacy (19, 20, and 5%) and expert discagreement (28, 19, and 8%), but not PSA accuracy (28, 22, and 22%). The percent of pamphlet subjects discussing screening with their provider was significantly higher relative to controls (41 versus 32%, p=.03) but the percent of video subjects was not (35%, p=.33). Video and pamphlet subjects were less uncertain about CaP screening decisions, as indicated by significantly lower scores on O'Connor's Factors Contributing to Uncertainty scale. Pamphlet subjects were significantly more likely than controls to seek information on CaP screening at their last visit, but video subjects were not, as indicated by scores on Lerman's Information Seeking scale. Both intervention groups were significantly more likely than controls to participate in decisions about CaP screening, as indicated by their higher scores on Lerman's Decision Making participation scale. There were no differences across groups on Holmes-Rovner's Satisfaction with Decision scale. The percentage of subjects intending to have a PSA test in the next year was significantly higher for controls (74%), relative to both video (63%, p=.003) and pamphlet (65%, p=.02) subjects. The percentage of subjects preferring watchful waiting as a treatment option was significantly lower for controls (44%) relative to both video (56%, p=.003) and pamphlet (54%, p=.02) subjects. The percentage of video, pamphlet and control subjects receiving a PSA did not differ significantly across grops at either two weeks (29, 28, and 29% respectively) or one year (70, 67, and 69%) post target appointment. Knowledge declined between T1 and T2 for both intervention groups, but at T2 video subjects continued to show significant improvement over the control group. The pamphlet group only retained significant improvement over the control group at T2 for the treatment efficacy question. T2 screening and treatment preference contrasts with controls were only significant for video subjects.
Patient knowledge and decision participation can be enhanced through the use of either of the study interventions. The pamphlet is lowere cost and has a more pronounced effect on decision participation, but the video has a more lasting effect on knowledge and preferences.
- Partin MR, Nelson D, Flood AB, Friedemann-Sánchez G, Wilt TJ. Who uses decision aids? Subgroup analyses from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of two prostate cancer screening decision support interventions. Health Expectations. 2006 Sep 1; 9(3):285-95.
- Taylor BC, Wilt TJ, Clothier B, Grill JP, Partin MR. Assessing health status in older men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Federal practitioner : for the health care professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS. 2006 Jul 1; 23(7):29-40.
- Wilt TJ, Partin MR. Reducing PSAnxiety: The importance of noninvasive chronic disease management in prostate cancer detection and treatment. The American journal of medicine. 2004 Nov 15; 117(10):796-8.
- Partin MR, Nelson D, Radosevich D, Nugent S, Flood AB, Dillon N, Holtzman J, Haas M, Wilt TJ. Randomized trial examining the effect of two prostate cancer screening educational interventions on patient knowledge, preferences, and behaviors. Journal of general internal medicine. 2004 Aug 1; 19(8):835-42.
- Radosevich DM, Partin MR, Nugent S, Nelson D, Flood AB, Holtzman J, Dillon N, Haas M, Wilt TJ. Measuring patient knowledge of the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening. Patient education and counseling. 2004 Aug 1; 54(2):143-52.
- Wilt TJ, Partin MR. Prostate cancer intervention. Involving the patient in early detection and treatment. Postgraduate medicine. 2003 Oct 1; 114(4):43-9; quiz 50.
- Radosevich D, Partin MR, Nelson DB, Radosevich DM, Flood AB, Dillon N, Holtzman J, Haas M, Wilt TJ. The PSA Test for Prostate Cancer: Is it Right for Me? 2004 Nov 1.
- Partin MR. Minneapolis VA Experiences Implementing PSA Decision Aids. Paper presented at: VA Canadian Diabetes Association Diabetes Clinical Practice Guideline Toolkit Update Meeting; 2010 Nov 30; Rosemont, IL.
- Partin MR, Nelson DB, Flood AB, Friedemann-Sanchez G, Wilt TJ. Who uses decision aids? Findings from a trial comparing two prostate cancer screening decision aids. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D National Meeting; 2006 Feb 17; Arlington, VA.
- Partin MR. Effect of prostate cancer screening decision aids on shared decision making process outcomes: Results from a randomized trial. Paper presented at: International Shared Decision Making Annual Conference; 2005 Jun 14; Ottawa, Canada.
- Partin MR, Nelson D, Flood AB, Wilt TJ. Who utilizes decision aids? Findings from a randomized trial of two patient directed prostate cancer screening decision support interventions. Poster session presented at: International Shared Decision Making Annual Conference; 2005 Jun 14; Ottawa, Canada.
- Partin MR. Facilitating Informed Decisions about Prostate Cancer Screening: Lessons Learned from a Randomized Trial. Paper presented at: Minnesota Health Services Research Annual Conference; 2005 Mar 1; Minneapolis, MN.
- Partin MR. Effect of Prostate Cancer Screening Decision Aids on Decision Making Process Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Trial. Poster session presented at: Society for Medical Decision Making Annual Meeting; 2004 Oct 17; Atlanta, GA.
- Wilt TJ, Partin M, Nugent S, Nelson D, Flood A, Holtzman F, Dillon N. Benign prostatic obstruction symptoms are common in veterans and associated with poorer health status. Paper presented at: American Urological Association Annual Meeting; 2003 Apr 29; Chicago, IL.
- Partin M. Effect of prostate cancer screening decision aids on decision making process outcomes: Results from a randomized trial. Paper presented at: Minnesota Health Services Research Annual Conference; 2003 Mar 4; Minneapolis, MN.
- Partin MR, Wilt TJ, Nelson D, Radosevich DM, Nugent S, Flood AB, Dillon N. Facilitating informed decision making about prostate cancer screening: Evaluation of two approaches. Paper presented at: VA HSR&D National Meeting; 2003 Feb 14; Washington, DC.
- Partin M. Evaluation of two interventions designed to educate men about the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening. Paper presented at: Minnesota Health Services Research Annual Conference; 2002 May 1; Minneapolis, MN.
Cost effectiveness, Education (patient), Screening
Decision Making, Health Behavior, Patient Education, Decision Support Systems, Management